Framing Narrative

A framing narrative contains a second (or more) embedded narrative(s), for which it provides a context or setting. Sometimes the framing narrative will begin and end the narrative as a whole, providing ‘book ends’,  other times it will simply be present at the beginning of the narrative, acting as an introduction, sometimes it reappears as a linking device between a series of embedded narratives. The framing narrative “sets the scene” for the embedded narrative(s), giving us a context in which we can read and interpret what they tell.

A special form of a framing narrative is a meta narrative, where the containing and contained narratives are thematically and/or content related.

Framing sometimes comes as nesting narratives or Matroushka Doll narratives where there is a series of narratives – A frames B, B frames C, C frames D etc etc.

edited 6 October, 2015 by Admin

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Associated Practices

Framing Narrative

in Narrative environment design

Framing narratives in narrative environment design have a lot in common with framing narratives in textual and verbal storytelling, so here is the narratology definition to start off:

A framing narrative contains a second (or more) embedded narrative(s), for which it provides a context or setting. Sometimes the framing narrative will begin and end the narrative as a whole, providing book ends,  other times it will simply be present at the beginning of the narrative, acting as an introduction, sometimes it reappears as a linking device between a series of embedded narratives. The framing narrative “sets the scene” for the embedded narrative(s), giving us a context in which we can read and interpret the text.

A framing narrative may frame a single sub narrative; “we were sitting round the kitchen table when D started talking in a low, fearful voice: “I was staying at X’s house many years ago when…” etc

Or it may frame many: The 1001 Nights

If in the first example D had said: “I was staying in this very house many years ago when…” and the whole narrative had been a story about the house itself (perhaps about persistent haunting, for example), then both the framing and the sub narratives would have shared to some extent the same focus and the same storyworld; when this is the case we say the framing narrative is a meta-narrative.

Often framing comes as a set of nesting (we say Matroushka Doll) narratives: The British Museum has a narrative of power and authority told through the architecture and and the use of external space; then inside, the collection as a whole tells a story of imperialism, adventure and scholarship, which itself is broken into many sub narratives of particular instances. Within this context, a particular exhibit may be framed by a particular curatorial discourse, and itself consist of or contain sub narratives emerging from the objects themselves or the way they are related to each other.

In narrative envionment design, as this example suggests) the framing narrative may not just be of a different order from the narrative(s) it encloses, it may be of an entirely different kind, in a different medium: a curator will create a framing narrative around a collection of object or images, which in themselves tell stories, or are curated to imply stories through ordering and juxtaposition. This framing narrative may be dispersed through the exhibition in texts on display, and/or contained in the catalogue; it might be told in part or entirely through sound or lighting or the use of space; all of this is already framed by the physical characteristics, volumes and location of the building and the stories they tell.

Or landscaping may tell a framing story about the buildings it contains, e.g. Scarpa’s Brion Vega Tomba, where spatial layout, acoustics, borrowed landscapes and soundscapes weave a story around the narrative of the key architectural moments, http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Brion-Vega_Cemetery.html

Or a city brand narrative may contain or frame a multitude of localised sub narratives.

edited 7 September, 2016 by Admin
The museum building tells through its architecture a story of fragmentation and destruction. In particular, the bird’s eye view shows it as a broken and unravelled Star of David.

The museum building tells through its architecture a story of fragmentation and destruction. In particular, the bird’s eye view shows it as a broken and unravelled Star of David.

The exterior looks as if it has been attacked and slashed

The exterior looks as if it has been attacked and slashed

even the memorial garden looks off kilter, and in winter, bleak

even the memorial garden looks off kilter, and in winter, bleak

The interior is often bare, sometimes looks abandoned

The interior is often bare, sometimes looks abandoned

and sometimes the sense of being only inhabited by fragments and memories of pain is explicit and refers explicitly to the death camps

and sometimes the sense of being only inhabited by fragments and memories of pain is explicit and refers explicitly to the death camps

On the other hand, the exhibition content is typically joyous and full of life. One particular exhibit uses narrative, symbolism and ritual to draw us into the arcance world of numerology, which is a very important part of both the Torah and the Kabbalah. You enter a room which contains a long table round which visitors stand.

On the other hand, the exhibition content is typically joyous and full of life. One particular exhibit uses narrative, symbolism and ritual to draw us into the arcance world of numerology, which is a very important part of both the Torah and the Kabbalah. You enter a room which contains a long table round which visitors stand.

This evokes the Jewish traditon of eating together on every Shabat, and in particular at Pessach (Passover), when people stand to eat. Anyone who is Jewish or watched Woody Allen films will know that jewish people love to talk during the meal, typically arguing, gossipping and telling each other stories. The table is covered with numbers instead of food

This evokes the Jewish traditon of eating together on every Shabat, and in particular at Pessach (Passover), when people stand to eat. Anyone who is Jewish or watched Woody Allen films will know that jewish people love to talk during the meal, typically arguing, gossipping and telling each other stories. The table is covered with numbers instead of food

as people reach for the numbers (food for the mind)

as people reach for the numbers (food for the mind)

the numbers open up and tell their story of their relationship to Jewish learning and culture.

the numbers open up and tell their story of their relationship to Jewish learning and culture.

The museum building tells through its architecture a story of fragmentation and destruction. In particular, the bird’s eye view shows it as a broken and unravelled Star of David.

The museum building tells through its architecture a story of fragmentation and destruction. In particular, the bird’s eye view shows it as a broken and unravelled Star of David.

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The exterior looks as if it has been attacked and slashed

The exterior looks as if it has been attacked and slashed

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even the memorial garden looks off kilter, and in winter, bleak

even the memorial garden looks off kilter, and in winter, bleak

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The interior is often bare, sometimes looks abandoned

The interior is often bare, sometimes looks abandoned

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and sometimes the sense of being only inhabited by fragments and memories of pain is explicit and refers explicitly to the death camps

and sometimes the sense of being only inhabited by fragments and memories of pain is explicit and refers explicitly to the death camps

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On the other hand, the exhibition content is typically joyous and full of life. One particular exhibit uses narrative, symbolism and ritual to draw us into the arcance world of numerology, which is a very important part of both the Torah and the Kabbalah. You enter a room which contains a long table round which visitors stand.

On the other hand, the exhibition content is typically joyous and full of life. One particular exhibit uses narrative, symbolism and ritual to draw us into the arcance world of numerology, which is a very important part of both the Torah and the Kabbalah. You enter a room which contains a long table round which visitors stand.

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This evokes the Jewish traditon of eating together on every Shabat, and in particular at Pessach (Passover), when people stand to eat. Anyone who is Jewish or watched Woody Allen films will know that jewish people love to talk during the meal, typically arguing, gossipping and telling each other stories. The table is covered with numbers instead of food

This evokes the Jewish traditon of eating together on every Shabat, and in particular at Pessach (Passover), when people stand to eat. Anyone who is Jewish or watched Woody Allen films will know that jewish people love to talk during the meal, typically arguing, gossipping and telling each other stories. The table is covered with numbers instead of food

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as people reach for the numbers (food for the mind)

as people reach for the numbers (food for the mind)

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the numbers open up and tell their story of their relationship to Jewish learning and culture.

the numbers open up and tell their story of their relationship to Jewish learning and culture.

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Framing Narrative

in Narratology

A framing narrative contains a second (or more) embedded narrative(s), for which it provides a context or setting. Sometimes the framing narrative will begin and end the narrative as a whole, providing book ends,  other times it will simply be present at the beginning of the narrative, sometimes it reappears as a linking device between a series of embedded narratives. The framing narrative “sets the scene” for the embedded narrative(s), giving us a context in which we can read and interpret the text.

There are many types of framing narratives, but the two main ones are:

1. a collection of stories which are not necessarily related to one another or to the framing narrative (e.g. One Thousand and One Nights), in this case the framing narrative often has little effect on our reading of the embedded narratives.

2. in the other type the framing narrative is related to the the embedded narrative, examples of this are The Turn of the Screw (Henry James), in which the framing narrative introduces the main narrative, and Frankenstein (Mary Shelley) in which a set of narratives successively enclose each other like a nest of boxes or baboushka dolls: Robert Walton writes letters to his sister describing the story told to him by Victor Frankenstein, Frankenstein’s story contains the monster’s story, and the monster’s story  contains the story of a family he had lived with. In this kind of framing the framing narrative can have a very strong effect on the way we read the embedded narrative: for example, in The Turn of the Screw, the narrator of the framing narrative expresses a hgh opinion of the narrator of the embedded (main) narrative, which might lead us to believe the main narrator to be a reliable narrator. However, we can (and many people do) consider the framing narrator to be an unreliable narrator – deceived about the psychology of the main narrator, who is herself unreliable (deluded).

In MANE we call this type of framing narrative a meta narrative

 

Web resources:

The international Society for the Study of Narrative http://narrative.georgetown.edu/wiki/index.php/Main_Page

The Wikipedia entry for Frame Narrative is good: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frame_story

edited 6 April, 2016 by Admin